A Programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process
|TYPES OF COMPUTERS
Ex: IBM's Blue Gene/P (over $1.5 million per rack)
- Requires special staff and environment
- Fastest, largest, costliest
- Multi-user : 10,000
- Used for research (Argonne National Lab), weather forecasting, aircraft design,
simulation, special effects
Ex: IBM System z10 mainframe ($100,000 and up)
- Requires special staff and environment
- Fast, large capacity
- Multi-user : thousands of users
- Used by large organizations - banks, univ, insurance co.
Ex: Dell PC ($400 and up)
Intel Pentium dual-core processor E5200 (2MB, 2.5GHz)
Ex: Apple: 13-inch MacBook ($1,000 - $1,700)
- Single-user (typically) or Multi-user : 1 - 100 or more
- Small, portable, desktop machine
- High-end (workstation) Used by engineers and scientists for CAD,
high vol. number crunching
- Used by individuals for personal use or in business networked
Smaller size -
processors (vacuum tubes -> transistors ->IC chip)
Microprocessor - miniaturized circuitry that processes the data,
etched onto a sliver (chip) of silicon (found in sand).
More powerful - miniaturization allows computer to house more
components, processing over shorter "distances".
Less expensive - miniaturization allows computers to be used
more places and for more purposes - mass production decreases price /
assembly line used for smaller components.
Physical components of a computer.
Devices that allow data to be put into the computer.
- Mouse, trackball, joystick
- Digital Camera
- Scanning device
Devices that translate processed data into a form that humans can
- Speakers (beeps, tones, music, speech)
- Screen (monitor, CRT, flat-panel display) - softcopy
- Printer, plotter (dot-matrix, laser, ink-jet) - hardcopy
The component that is the brains of the computer.
Central Processing Unit ... multi-core technology
controls and manipulates the data.
The components that store operational data & information
Random Access Memory
primary storage, main memory
Components that store the programs and data that are actively
- Electricity represents data & info
- Volatile - Changes when status of electricity changes
- Random Access to data & info
- Memory size determines the size of programs & data
Read Only Memory (not volatile, not erasable)
Component that stores hardwired instructions to
controls basic operations
"Boots up the computer"
Secondary Storage Hardware
Devices that store data & programs permanently
- Drive - Device that reads & write data on medium.
- Backup - Duplicate copy of data stored on secondary storage.
Examples of media:
- magnetic floppy disk(1.44 MB)
- magnetic hard disk(30GB -??)
- magnetic tape
- CD (700 MB), CD-R, CD-RW
- ZIP (100 MB, 250 MB, 750 MB),
- DVD (17 GB), DVD-R, DVD-RW
- USB jump drive (20MB - ??) (thumb drive)
Data - Organized into the following units
- Bits - Binary digIT (electrical states)
- Byte - Character - group of 8 bits that represents a letter,
number, or special symbol.
- Nibble - 4 bits
- Word -group of bits processed simultaneously (16 to 128 bits)
Units of measure for data -
byte - 1 character
kilo - thousand kilobyte (K) - 1024 characters
mega - million megabyte (MB) - over 1 million characters
giga - billion gigabyte (GB) - over 1 billion characters
tera - trillion terabyte (TB) - 1 trillion characters
Devices that allow a computer to communicate with geographically
Modem - Modulator/Demodulator - Electronic device that
allows a computer to communicate over the telephone lines.
DSL Modem - Allows your computer to connect to the phone
line using the high-speed DSL connection.
Cable Modem - Allows your computer to connect to the cable
Network card - wired or wireless card to connect to a LAN.
Router - Device to route two or more computers
Ethernet cable - cable to connect computer to
router or cable modem.
(Programs) The executable step by step instructions that tell the
computer how to perform a process or task.
(operating system) Software that enables the user and application
software to interact with the computer. Helps manage computer
- Windows Vista, XP, NT, 98, 2000
- Mac OSX
Software that can perform useful work on general-purpose tasks.
- word processing software (MS Word 2007)
- spreadsheet software (MS Excel 2007)
- presentation software (MS PowerPoint 2007)
- website development software (MS FrontPage 2003)
- game software (Doom 3)
- educational software (Yukon Trail, Kid Pix)